Olympiske sportsgrene

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Som olympiske sportsgrene har et stort antal sportsgrene gennem årene været repræsenteret ved de olympiske lege. Kun fem sportsgrene har været på programmet ved alle sommer-OL: atletik, cykling, fægtning, gymnastik og svømning. Ved vinter-OL har ishockey, skiløb og skøjteløb været en del af alle de afholdte lege.

Pr. 2009 er der 26 sportsgrene med 36 discipliner på programmet ved sommer-OL, der omfatter i alt ca. 300 konkurrencer, mens de olympiske vinterlege består af 7 sportsgrene med 15 discipliner og ca. 80 konkurrencer. Antallet af konkurrencer varierer en smule fra det ene OL til det næste.

Sportsgrene, discipliner og konkurrencer

Den Internationale Olympiske Komite (IOC) skelner mellem sportsgrene og discipliner. I IOC's terminologi er en sportsgren (eller en gruppe af discipliner) repræsenteret af ét internationalt specialforbund, f.eks. styres sportsgrenen håndbold af International Handball Federation, mens svømning, udspring, synkronsvømning og vandpolo alle styres af forbundet FINA og derfor ikke betragtes som selvstændige sportsgrene men discipliner under sportsgrenen vandsport. På samme måde anses skøjteløb, der styres af International Skating Union, som en sportsgren ved de olympiske vinterlege, der består af tre discipliner: kunstskøjteløb, hurtigløb på skøjter og short track.

Ændringer

Curling har været olympisk sportsgren siden vinter-OL 1998 i Nagano.

En sportsgren eller disciplin bliver optaget på det olympiske program, hvis IOC beslutter, at det er almindeligt udbredt i verden, dvs. antallet af lande som dyrker sportsgrenen anses for en rettesnor for sportsgrenens udbredelse. IOC optager imidlertid ikke motorsportsgrene på det olympiske program, selvom motorbådssejlads tidligere har været på programmet.

Ved tidligere olympiske lege blev der konkurreret i sportsgrene, der ikke længere er på det olympiske program, f.eks. polo og tovtrækning. Disse sportsgrene blev taget af programmet, enten på grund af mangel på interesse for sportsgrenen, eller fordi den manglede et internationalt specialforbund til at administrere sig. Bueskydning og tennis er eksempler på sportsgrene, som var på OL-programmet ved nogle af de første lege, men som senere blev taget af programmet af IOC, og som formåede at blive genoptaget på det olympiske program (bueskydning i 1972 og tennis i 1988).

De seneste programændringer skete den 11. juli 2005, da IOC stemte for at tage baseball og softball af det olympiske program for sommer-OL 2012, samt i 2009, hvor IOC besluttede at tilføje golf og 7-mands rugby til programmet fra og med sommer-OL 2016.

Olympiske program

Tovtrækning var blandt andet på programmet ved sommer-OL 1904, der dog senere blev taget af det olympiske program, men eksisterer den dag i dag stadigvæk som en sportsgren.

En sportsgren kan blive optaget på OL-programmet ved fremtidige lege, hvis det bliver anbefalet af IOC's programkommision og efterfølgende godkendt ved en afstemning i IOC. Typisk bliver en sportsgren først optaget på det olympiske program som demonstrationssportsgren, inden den blev optaget på det olympiske program.

En sportsgrens internationale specialforbund er ansvarlig for at sikre, at aktiveiteterne inden for den pågældende sportsgren følger det olympiske charter, og når sportsgrenen bliver optaget af IOC får det pågældende specialforbund status som "olympisk specialforbund". Sportsgrene, som ikke er en del af de olympiske lege, bliver ofte optaget på programmet ved World Games.

Nedenstående sportsgrene er optaget af Den Internationale Olympiske Komite, men indgår ikke som en del af det olympiske program:

Sommer-OL

Nuværende sportsgrene

De følgende sportsgrene (eller discipliner) udgør pr. 2016 det olympiske program ved de olympiske sommerlege. Tallene i de respektive celler indikerer antallet af konkurrencer ved de enkelte lege. En prik (•) angiver at sportsgrenen var på programmet som demonstrationssport. Fem af de 28 sportsgrene består af flere forskellige discipliner. Discipliner fra samme sportsgren er grupperet under samme farve.

Sportsgren (disciplin)Forbund9600040608122024283236485256606468727680848892960004081216
AtletikAthletics pictogram.svgIAAF1223252126302927272929333333343636383738414243444646474747
BadmintonBadminton pictogram.svgBWF4555555
BasketballBasketball pictogram.svgFIBA1111111122222222222
BoksningBoxing pictogram.svgAIBA758888881010101011111111121212121211111313
BordtennisTable tennis pictogram.svgITTF44444444
BrydningWrestling pictogram.svgFILA1841051013131414161616161616202020202020201618181818
BueskydningArchery pictogram.svgFITA66310222244444444
CyklingBaneCycling (track) pictogram.svgUCI527564444444445554456781212101010
BMXCycling (BMX) pictogram.svg222
LandevejCycling (road) pictogram.svg11222222222222222333444444
MountainbikeCycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg222222
FodboldFootball pictogram.svgFIFA111111111111111111111222222
FægtningFencing pictogram.svgFIE37584567777777888888888101010101010
GolfGolf pictogram.svgIGF222
GymnastikRedskabGymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svgFIG811142449811991515141414141414141414141414141414
RytmiskGymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg111222222
TrampolinGymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg22222
HockeyField hockey pictogram.svgFIH11111111111112222222222
HåndboldHandball pictogram.svgIHF1122222222222
JudoJudo pictogram.svgIJF46688714141414141414
Kano
og kajak
FladvandCanoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svgICF999977771111121212121212121212
SlalomCanoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg44444444
Moderne femkampModern pentathlon pictogram.svgUIPM111111122222222222122222
RidningEquestrian pictogram.svgFEI3575656666566666666666666
RoningRowing pictogram.svgFISA556445777777777771414141414141414141414
Rugby (7-mands)Rugby pictogram.svgWR2
SejlsportSailing pictogram.svgISAF10441433445555556667810101111111010
SkydningShooting pictogram.svgISSF59161518211023477667877111313151717151515
TaekwondoTaekwondo pictogram.svgWTF88888
TennisTennis pictogram.svgITF2424685544444455
TriatlonTriathlon pictogram.svgITU22222
VandsportUdspringDiving pictogram.svgFINA212455444444444444444488888
SvømningSwimming pictogram.svg4794691011111111111113151829292626293131323232343434
Synkronsvømn.Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg222122222
VandpoloWater polo pictogram.svg111111111111111111111122222
VolleyballBeachvolleyVolleyball (beach) pictogram.svgFIVB222222
IndendørsVolleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg22222222222222
VægtløftningWeightlifting pictogram.svgIWF2222555556777779910101010101515151515
Konkurrencer i alt43919678110102156126109116129136149151150163172195198203221237257271300301302302306

Tidligere sportsgrene

  • Baseball (1992-2008, demonstreret 1912, 1936, 1952, 1956, 1964, 1984, 1988)
  • Cricket (1900)
  • Ishockey (1920, siden 1924 afholdt ved vinter-OL)
  • Kroket (1900)
  • Kunstskøjteløb (1908, 1920, siden 1924 afholdt ved vinter-OL)
  • Lacrosse (1904-1908, demonstreret 1928, 1932, 1948)
  • Motorbådssejlads (1908, demonstreret 1900)
  • Pelota (1900, demonstreret 1924, 1968, 1992)
  • Polo (1900, 1908, 1920-1924, 1936)
  • Racketball (1908)
  • Real tennis (jeu de paume) (1908, demonstreret 1900, 1924)
  • Rugby (1900, 1908, 1920-1924, demonstreret 2000), 2016
  • Softball (1996-2008)
  • Tovtrækning (1900-1920)

Demonstrationssportsgrene

Sportsgrene, der tidligere er afholdt som demonstrationssportsgren, men som ikke har opnået olympiske status:

Olympiske vinterlege

Før afholdelse af de første olympiske vinterlege i 1924, blev der konkurreret i kunstskøjteløb og ishockey ved sommer-OL. Disse to sportsgrene blev introduceret ved de olympiske lege i henholdsvis 1908 og 1920, med de blev flyttet til vinterlegene allerede ved den første udgave af disse. Den "Internationale Vintersportsuge", som senere blev omdøbt til "I Olympiske Vinterlege" og med tilbagevirkende kraft optaget af IOC, bestod af ni sportsgrene. Antallet af sportsgrene ved vinterlegene er nu syv, og antallet af discipliner er femten.

En sportsgren eller disciplin skal være almideligt udbredt i 25 lande på tre kontineter for at kunne blive optaget på det olympiske program for de olympiske vinterlege.

Nuværende program

De følgende sportsgrene og discipliner udgør det nuværende olympiske program for de olympiske vinterlege. Tallene i de enkelte celler angiver antallet af konkurrencer ved de enkelte lege. De blå kolonner symboliserer de sommerlege, hvor der blev afholdt konkurrencer i nuværende vintersportsgrene, en prik (•) indikerer at sportsgrenen blev afholdt som demonstrationssport.

Tre ud af de syv sportsgrene er opdelt i flere discipliner, og i de tilfælde er disciplinerne grupperet under samme farve.

Sportsgren (disciplin)Forbund0820242832364852566064687276808488929498020610
Bobslæde
og skeleton
BobslædeBobsleigh pictogram.svgFIBT  11222222222222222333
SkeletonSkeleton pictogram.svg  11222
CurlingCurling pictogram.svgWCF  12222
IshockeyIce hockey pictogram.svgIIHF 1111111111111111112222
KælkLuge pictogram.svgFIL  3333333333333
SkiløbAlpintAlpine skiing pictogram.svgFIS  2666666666610101010101010
LangrendCross country skiing pictogram.svg  222334667777788101010121212
FreestyleFreestyle skiing pictogram.svg  2 •44446
Nordisk komb.Nordic combined pictogram.svg  111111111111112222333
SkihopSki jumping pictogram.svg  111111112222223333333
SnowboardSnowboarding pictogram.svg  4466
Skiskydning[3]Biathlon pictogram.svgIBU  11122233366681010
SkøjteløbKunstskøjteløbFigure skating pictogram.svgISU43333333333334444444444
Short trackShort track speed skating pictogram.svg  466888
HurtigløbSpeed skating pictogram.svg  544 •4444888899910101010101212
Konkurrencer i alt161414172222242734353537383946576168788486

Tidligere sportsgrene

Militærpatrulje, der blev afviklet som konkurrence ved de første olympiske vinterlege i 1924, og som sidenhen var på programmet som demonstrationssport i 1928, 1936 og 1948, regnes i dag ind under skiskydning.

Demonstrationssportsgrene

Otte sportsgrene er blevet afholdt som demonstrationssportsgrene, men de er aldrig blevet en del af det programmet ved de olympiske vinterlege.

Se også

Noter og referencer

  1. ^ Golf forbliver del af OL Mikkel Ring Christensen 10/06 - 2017 på golf.dk
  2. ^ Mallon, Bill og Jeroen Heijmans (2011) Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. Inc. Side 189. ISBN 978-0-8108-7249-3
  3. ^ Militærpatrulje, der var forløberen for det moderne sportsgren skiskydning, blev afviklet som konkurrence ved de første olympiske vinterlege i 1924, og som sidenhen var på programmet som demonstrationssport i 1928, 1936 og 1948, er i tabellen medtaget under skiskydning.

Medier brugt på denne side

Boxing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Boxing. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Cycling (road). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Football pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Football. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Handball pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Handball. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Volleyball (indoor). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Ski jumping pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Ski jumping
Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Volleyball (beach). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Gymnastics (trampoline). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Gymnastics (rhythmic). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Cycling (mountain biking). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Taekwondo pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Taekwondo. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Basketball pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Basketball. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Synchronized swimming. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Gymnastics (artistic). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Athletics pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports – Athletics. This is an unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Speed skating pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Speed Skating
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Freestyle skiing
Skeleton pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Skeleton
Tennis pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Tennis. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Ice hockey pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Ice hockey
Curling pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Curling
Sailing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Sailing. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Bobsleigh
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Cycling (track). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Curling Torino 2006 Pinerolo Palaghiaccio scena1.jpg
Curling nelle olimpiadi invernali di Torino del 2006. Pinerolo, Palaghiaccio, interno.
Shooting pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Shooting. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Rugby pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Rugby union. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Field hockey pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Field hockey. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Modern pentathlon. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Golf pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Golf. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Canoeing (slalom). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Swimming pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Swimming. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Fencing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Fencing. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Water polo pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Water polo. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Biathlon pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Biathlon
Snowboarding pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Snowboarding
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Alpine skiing
Judo pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Judo. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for the 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Short track speed skating pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Short track speed skating
Nordic combined pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Nordic combined
Luge pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Luge
Archery pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Archery. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Triathlon pictogram.svg
Pictogramme officiel triathlon olympique
Wrestling pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Wrestling. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Figure skating pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Figure skating
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Canoeing (flatwater). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Badminton pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Badminton. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Weightlifting pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Weightlifting. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Diving pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Diving. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Cross country skiing
Equestrian pictogram.svg
Pictograma de los juegos ecuestres.
Rowing pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Rowing. This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.
Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg
Pictograms of Olympic sports - Cycling (BMX). This is unofficial sample picture. Images of official Olympic pictograms for 1948 Summer Olympics and all Summer Olympics since 1964 can be found in corresponding Official Reports.