Hachimoji DNA

En model af en stump naturligt DNA, der viser helixstrukturen

Hachimoji DNA (fra japansk 八文字 hachimoji = otte bogstaver) er et syntetisk DNA, der ud over de fire naturlige nukleinbaser i DNA (nemlig A, T, G og C) bruger yderligere fire syntetiske baser: P, Z, B og S.

Den genetiske kode kan dermed fordobles til en “syntetisk” kode med otte bogstaver. Det nye syntetiske DNA har således fire forskellige basepar, to nye syntetiske basepar, PZ og BS, dannet af de nye syntetiske baser ud over de to normale par, AT og GC (se skemaerne).

Forsøg med det nye syntetiske DNA har vist at det kan transkripteres til hachimojo RNA med en modificeret polymerase, hvorved der kunne produceres en type katalytisk RNA (ribozym eller aptamer).

Fordelene ved en udviddet DNA-kode kunne omfatte lagring af stærkt komprimerede data, dvs. en forbedret genetisk kode, samt indsigt i livets generelle kemiske forudsætninger dvs. hvad man også kunne forvente af eventuelt udenjordisk liv. [1][2][3][4][5]

En anden fordel kunne være ved udvikling af nye lægemidler.[6]

BaseKemisk navnKemisk formelSMILESKemisk strukturChemSpiderPubChem
P2-Aminoimidazo[1,2a][1,3,5]triazin-4(1H)-one

2-amino-8-(1′-b-D-2′-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo-[1,2a]-1,3,5-triazin-[8H]-4-one[1]

C5H5N5OC1=CN2C(=O)NC(=NC2=N1)N
5-aza-7-deazaguanine.svg
10205066135600909
Z6-Amino-5-nitropyridin-2-ol

6-amino-3-(1′-b-D-2′-deoxyribofuranosyl)-5-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one[1]

C5H5N3O3C1=CC(=O)NC(=C1[N+](=O)[O-])N
6-Amino-5-nitropyridin-2-one.svg
935781411182729
BIsoguanine

6-amino-9[(1′-b-D-2′-deoxyribofuranosyl)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-oxolan-2-yl]-1H-purin-2-one[1]

C5H5N5OC1=NC2=NC(=O)NC(=C2N1)N
Isoguanine vector.svg
6935176900
SrSIsocytosineC4H5N3OC1=CN=C(NC1=O)N
Isocytosine.png
6030966950
dS1-Methylcytosine

3-methyl-6-amino-5-(1′-b-D-2′-deoxyribofuranosyl)-pyrimidin-2-one[1]

C5H7N3OCN1C=CC(=NC1=O)N
1-Methylcytosine.svg
7147479143
Hachimoji DNA
Hachimoji RNA
Baseparring.
Til venstre hachimoji DNA (dR = deoxyribose).
Til højre hachimoji RNA (R = ribose).
De naturlige baser er øverst.
De unaturlige syntetiske baser er nederst.
Hydrogenbindinger er stiplede grønne linier med acceptoratomet i rødt[1]



Henvisninger

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hoshika S, Leal NA, Kim MJ, Kim MS, Karalkar NB, Kim HJ, et al. (februar 2019). "Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks". Science. 363 (6429): 884-887. doi:10.1126/science.aat0971. PMID 30792304.
  2. ^ American Association for the Advancement of Science (21. februar 2019). "Hachimoji – Expanding the genetic alphabet from four to eight". EurekAlert!. Hentet 22. februar 2019.
  3. ^ Brown D, Landau E (21. februar 2019). "Research creates DNA-like molecule to aid search for alien life". Phys.org. Hentet 22. februar 2019.
  4. ^ Dumé B (22. februar 2019). "Hachimoji DNA doubles the genetic code". Physics World. Hentet 22. februar 2019.
  5. ^ Zimmer C (21. februar 2019). "DNA Gets a New — and Bigger — Genetic Alphabet - DNA is spelled out with four letters, or bases. Researchers have now built a system with eight. It may hold clues to the potential for life elsewhere in the universe and could also expand our capacity to store digital data on Earth". The New York Times. Hentet 21. februar 2019.
  6. ^ A semi-synthetic organism that stores and retrieves increased genetic information. Nature 2019


Medier brugt på denne side

6-Amino-5-nitropyridin-2-one.svg
6-Amino-5-nitropyridin-2-one structure
DNA animation.gif
Animation of a rotating DNA structure.

خر نباش گوهم نباشید

//www.bernstein-plus-sons.com/software/rasmol/ RasMol 2.7.2.1.1] using the 1BNA.pdb dataset and the following commands:

GUI options were: Options->Specular, Display->Sticks

Then, in the command line:

write frame-000.gif
set write true
script script.txt

where script.txt was a separate text file in the same directory, consisting of the same two repeating lines:

rotate x 03
write frame-001.gif
rotate x 03
write frame-002.gif
rotate x 03
write frame-003.gif
...

from 001 up to 119 (for a total of 120 images when combined with frame-000.gif).

This was then loaded in Adobe ImageReady, and saved as an animated GIF.
1-Methylcytosine.svg
Structural formula of the chemical compound 1-methylcytosine, 1mC.
Isocytosine.png
chemical structure of isocytosine
Hachimoji RNA base pairs.gif
Forfatter/Opretter: WolfmanSF, Licens: CC BY-SA 4.0
Hachimoji RNA hydrogen bonds are depicted as dashed green lines, with acceptor atoms shown in red. Nucleobase Z is 6-amino-5-nitropyridin-2-ol, P is 5-aza-7-deazaguanine, S in rS is isocytosine and B is isoguanine.
Hachimoji DNA base pairs.gif
Forfatter/Opretter: WolfmanSF, Licens: CC BY-SA 4.0
Hachimoji DNA hydrogen bonds are depicted as dashed green lines, with acceptor atoms shown in red. Nucleobase Z is 6-amino-5-nitropyridin-2-ol, P is 5-aza-7-deazaguanine, S in dS is 1-methylcytosine and B is isoguanine.