Gazakrigen 2014

Gazakrigen 2014
Del af Gaza-Israel-konflikt og den bredere israelsk-palæstinensiske konflikt
Ødelagt palæstinensisk hus i Gaza
(c) Muhammad Sabah and B'Tselem, CC BY 4.0

Ødelagt palæstinensisk hus i Gaza
Dato8. juli 2014 - 26. august 2014
(1 måned, 2 uger og 4 dage)
StedGazastriben og Israel
ResultatBegge parter hævder at være sejrrig[1]
  • I henhold til Israel var Hamas alvorligt svækket og opnåede ingen af sine krav[2]
  • I henhold til Hamas blev Israel afvist fra Gaza[3]
Parter
Israel Israel (IDF)Gazastriben Gazastriben
Ledere
Benjamin Netanyahu
(Premierminister)
Moshe Ya'alon
(Forsvarsminister)
Benny Gantz
(General)
Yoram Cohen
(Shin Bet)
Khaled Mashal
(Leder af Hamas)
Ismail Haniyeh
(Viceleder af Hamas)
Mohammed Deif
(Leder af Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigaden)
Ramadan Shalah
(Leader of Islamsk Jihad)
Styrke
176.500 aktive soldater
565.000 reservister[7]
(2012-tal: ikke alle involveret)
Al-Qassam Brigaden: 20,000[8]–40,000[9]

Al-Quds Brigaden: 8,000[10]

Tab
67 soldater og 6 civile (1 fra Thailand) dræbt,[11][12][13]
469 soldater og 87 civile såret[14][15]
Gazas sundhedsministeriums: 2,310 dræbt[16] (70% civile)[17], 10.626 sårede[16]
UN HRC: 2.251 dræbt [a][18](65% civile)[18]
Israels Udenrigsministerium: 2.125 dræbt [b][19](36% civile, 44% militante, 20% ukategoriseret mænd i alderen 16–50)[19]

Mindst 23 palæstinensere henrettet af Hamas[20]

  1. ^ Baseret på tal fra det palæstinensiske sundhedsministerium. Side 149[18]
  2. ^ [19] s.10, 1:21:"Israel does not presume to be able to produce a definitive account of all fatalities that occurred during the 2014 Gaza Conflict."

Gazakrigen i 2014, også kendt som Operation Beskyttende Kant (Hebraisk: מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, transskription: Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, oversat til engelsk: "Operation Strong Cliff"),[note 1][24][25][26] var en militær operation iværksat af Israel den 8. juli 2014 i Gazastriben – et palæstinensisk område, der har været styret af Hamas siden 2007.[note 2] Efter en kidnapning og drab af tre israelske teenagere på Vestbredden af Hamas – udført en Hamas-affilieret palæstinensiske militante – indledte Israel Defense Forces (IDF) "Operation Brother's Keeper", hvor omkring 350 palæstinensere, inklusive næsten alle de aktive Hamas-militante på Vestbredden, blev anholdt.[27][28][29] Hamas affyrede efterfølgende et større antal raketter ind i Israel fra Gazastriben, hvilket udløste en syv uger lang konflikt mellem de to sider. Det var en af de dødeligste konflikt mellem Israel og palæstinenserne i årtier. Kombinationen af palæstinensiske raketangreb og israelske luftangreb resulterede i tusindvis af dødsfald, hvoraf størstedelen var palæstinensere fra Gazastriben.[30]

Den israelske militæroperation havde til formål at stoppe raketbeskydning mod Israel fra Gazastriben. Omvendt havde Hamas' angreb til formål at bringe internationalt pres på Israel, hvor det strategiske mål var at tvinge sidstnævnte til at ophæve den israelsk-egyptiske blokade af Gazastriben; blandt dets andre mål var at afslutte Israels militæroffensiv, få en tredjepart til at overvåge og garantere overholdelse af en våbenhvile,[31] løslade palæstinensiske politiske fanger og overvinde dens isolation.[32] I henhold til BBC indledte Israel luftangreb mod Gazastriben som gengældelse for raketangrebene fra Hamas, Palæstinensisk Islamisk Jihad (PIJ) og andre palæstinensiske militante grupper.[33]

Den 7. juli, efter at syv Hamas-militante døde i en tunneleksplosion i Khan Yunis – der var forårsaget enten af et israelsk luftangreb (ifølge Hamas, BBC og en højtstående IDF-embedsmand)[34] eller en utilsigtet eksplosion af deres egen ammunition (ifølge IDF) – påtog Hamas sig ansvaret for raketter, der blev affyret mod Israel, og afsendte efterfølgende 40 raketter mere mod Israel.[35][36] Den israelske luftoperation begyndte officielt den efterfølgende dag, og den 17. juli blev den udvidet til at omfatte en landinvasion af Gazastriben med det erklærede mål at ødelægge Gazas tunnelsystem; [37] den israelske landinvasion sluttede den 5. august.[38] Den 26. august blev der annonceret en tidsubegrænset våbenhvile.[39] På dette tidspunkt rapporterede IDF, at Hamas, PIJ og andre palæstinensiske militante grupper havde affyret 4.564 raketter og morterer ind mod Israel, hvor over 735 af projektilerne var blevet skudt ned af Israels Iron Dome. Det meste af Hamas' morter- og raketbeskydning var dog unøjagtig og ramte åbent og ubeboede landområder – mere end 280 af projektiler var tilmed landet i Gazastriben.[40][41][42] 224 projektiler havde ramt boligområder.[43][44] Palæstinensiske raketter dræbte også 13 civile palæstinensere i Gaza – 11 af dem børn.[45][46] IDF angreb 5.263 mål i Gazastriben, hvorf mindst 34 kendte tunneler blev ødelagt[43] og to tredjedele af Hamas' 10.000 raketarsenal blev enten opbrugt eller ødelagt.[47][48]

Mellem 2.125[19] og 2.310 palæstinensere fra Gaza blev dræbt under konflikten, mens mellem 10.626 og 10.895[49] blev såret (inklusive 3.374 børn, hvoraf over 1.000 blev efterladt permanent handicappede).[50] Estimater af de civile tab i (relativ til samlet tab, altså inkl. militante tab) Gazastriben varierer fra mellem 70 procent fra Gazas sundhedsministerium,[12][49] 65 procent fra FN 's Protection Cluster af OCHA (baseret til dels på Gazas sundhedsministeriums rapporter),[18] og 36 procent fra israelske embedsmænd.[51][19] FN anslår, at mere end 7.000 hjem til 10.000 familier blev ødelagt sammen med yderligere 89.000 hjem, der blev beskadiget, hvoraf omkring 10.000 af disse blev hårdt ramt af bombningen.[52] Ombygningsomkostningerne blev beregnet til at beløbe sig til mellem US$4-6 milliarder over 20 år.[53] 67 israelske soldater, 5 israelske civile (inklusive et barn)[54] og en thailandsk civil blev dræbt[12] mens 469 israelske soldater og 261 israelske civile blev såret.[15] På israelsk side vurderes den økonomiske effekt af operationen at have været NIS 8,5 milliarder (ca. US$2.5 milliarder) og et BNP-tab på 0,4 procent.[55]

Noter

  1. ^ Tyrkiske Anadolu Agency rapporterede, at en israelsk militærtalsmand havde forklaret, at den ikke-bogstavelige oversættelse af operationens navn til engelsk skulle "give en mere 'defensiv' konnotation".[21] IDF's officielle arabiske navn for operationen, oversat til engelsk, er "Operation Resolute Cliff".[22][23]
  2. ^ Selvom Hamas kontrollerer Gazastriben, anser størstedelen af det internationale samfund (inklusive FN's Generalforsamling, FN's Sikkerhedsråd, Den Europæiske Union, Den Internationale Straffedomstol og mange menneskerettighedsorganisationer) Israel for at besætte Gazastriben, idet det kontrollerer regionens luftrum, kystlinje og de fleste af dens grænser.

Referencer

  1. ^ Prusher, Ilene (26. august 2014). "Israel and Palestinians Reach Open-Ended Cease-Fire Deal". Time. Hentet 5. september 2014.
  2. ^ "Netanyahu: Hamas suffered its greatest blow since it was founded". The Jerusalem Post (amerikansk engelsk). Hentet 2022-04-29.
  3. ^ Daraghmeh, Mohammed; Laub, Karin (26. august 2014). "Israel-Gaza conflict: Hamas claims 'victory for the resistance' as long-term truce is agreed with Israel". The Independent. London. Arkiveret fra originalen 1. maj 2022. Hentet 30. september 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Qassam brigades claim rocket, mortar fire at southern Israel Arkiveret 19. december 2014 hos Wayback Machine", Ma'an News Agency, Monday 21 July 2014.
  5. ^ "Abu Jamal: Palestinian resistance continues to confront the occupier with rockets and missiles". PFLP. Arkiveret fra originalen 12. august 2014. Hentet 10. august 2014.
  6. ^ "Armed wing linked to Mahmoud Abbas's faction says it shot rockets at Ashkelon, Sderot and elsewhere Wednesday night". The Times of Israel. Hentet 20. oktober 2014.
  7. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (7. marts 2012). Hackett, James (red.). The Military Balance 2012. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-642-6.
  8. ^ "Rockets, naval commandos boost Hamas arsenal". Maannews.net. 25. juli 2014. Arkiveret fra originalen 29. juli 2014. Hentet 4. august 2014.
  9. ^ "Hamas growing in military stature, say analysts". Middleeasteye.net. 17. juli 2014. Hentet 4. august 2014.
  10. ^ Ben Gedalyahu, Ben (7. november 2011). "Iran Backs Islamic Jihad's 8,000-Man Army in Gaza". Israel National News. Arutz Sheva. Hentet 7. november 2011.
  11. ^ "Operation Protective Edge, Casualties". Hentet 28. august 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "Occupied Palestinian Territory: Gaza Emergency" (PDF). 4. september 2014. Arkiveret fra originalen (PDF) 13. september 2014. Hentet 4. september 2014.
  13. ^ "Two years later, IDF officer succumbs to wounds from Gaza war". The Times of Israel.
  14. ^ Cease fire in Operation "Protective Edge" is holding MDA sums up 50 days of saving lives Arkiveret 26. juni 2015 hos Wayback Machine, Magen David Adom, 29 August 2014: 'During the 50 days of Operation "Protective Edge", MDA teams treated 842 civilians, including 6 who were killed by shrapnel of rockets, and another 36 who were injured by shrapnel in varying degrees, including: 10 casualties in serious condition, 6 in a moderate condition and 20 who were slightly wounded. In addition, MDA teams also treated during Operation "Protective Edge" 33 people who were injured by shattered glass and building debris, 18 who were injured in road traffic accidents which occurred when the sirens were heard, including 1 person in a serious condition, and the rest lightly or moderately wounded. 159 people were injured as a result of falling and trauma on the way to the shelters and 581 people suffered anxiety attacks.'
  15. ^ a b Hartman, Ben (28. august 2014). "50 days of Israel's Gaza operation, Protective Edge – by the numbers". The Jerusalem Post.
  16. ^ a b 'Ministry: Death toll from Gaza offensive topped 2,310,' Arkiveret 11. januar 2015 hos Wayback Machine Ma'an News Agency 3 January 2015.
  17. ^ "Islamic Jihad: 121 of our fighters killed in Gaza". The Times of Israel. Hentet 30. september 2014.
  18. ^ a b c d "Report of the detailed findings of the Commission of Inquiry on the 2014 Gaza Conflict".
  19. ^ a b c d e Annex: Palestinian Fatality Figures in the 2014 Gaza Conflict from report The 2014 Gaza Conflict: Factual and Legal Aspects, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 14 June 2015
  20. ^ "Gaza: Palestinians tortured, summarily killed by Hamas forces during 2014 conflict". Amnesty International (engelsk). 2015-05-27. Hentet 2022-04-29. ‘Strangling Necks': Abduction, torture and summary killings of Palestinians by Hamas forces during the 2014 Gaza/Israel conflict highlights a series of abuses, such as the extrajudicial execution of at least 23 Palestinians and the arrest and torture of dozens of others, including members and supporters of Hamas's political rivals, Fatah.
  21. ^ Arnaout, Abdel-Raouf (9. juli 2014). "From 'Shield' to 'Edge': How Israel names its military ops". Anadolu Agency. Hentet 28. juli 2014.
  22. ^ Ghert-Zand, Renee (9. juli 2014). "Name 'Protective Edge' doesn't cut it". The Times of Israel. Hentet 18. juli 2014.
  23. ^ Kordova, Shoshana (19. juli 2014). "Why is the English name of Operation Protective Edge so different from the Hebrew version?". Haaretz.
  24. ^ Booth, William (3. september 2014). "Here's what really happened in the Gaza war (according to the Israelis)". The Washington Post. Hentet 26. august 2016.
  25. ^ Harel, Amos (8. juli 2015). "The last Gaza war–and the next". Haaretz. Hentet 26. august 2016.
  26. ^ "Israel Clears Forces in Several Deadly 2014 Gaza War Cases". The New York Times. Associated Press. 24. august 2016. Hentet 26. august 2016.
  27. ^ "Hamas's Chances". London Review of Books.
  28. ^ Jack Khoury, Hamas claims responsibility for three Israeli teens' kidnapping and murder', Haaretz, 21 August 2014.
  29. ^ 'Mashal: Hamas was behind murder of three Israeli teens', Ynet, 22 August 2014.
  30. ^ Zonszein, Mairav (2015-03-27). "Israel killed more Palestinians in 2014 than in any other year since 1967". The Guardian (britisk engelsk). ISSN 0261-3077. Hentet 2020-03-03.
  31. ^ Ehab Zahriyeh, 'Citing past failures, Hamas demands an enforceable cease-fire,' Al-Jazeera,16 July 2014.
  32. ^ 'Hamas and Israel cling to their war aims,' Deutsche Welle 23 July 2014.
  33. ^ 'Hamas 'ready for Gaza ceasefire' if Israeli raids stop,' BBC News 4 July 2014.
  34. ^ Zitun, Yoav (7. juli 2014). "IDF: We uncovered Gaza terror tunnel leading to Israel". Yedioth. Ynet.
  35. ^ Christa Case Bryant, 'Ending détente, Hamas takes responsibility for today's spike in rocket fire (+video)', The Christian Science Monitor, 7 July 2014: "After days of steadily increasing strikes, Hamas militants in Gaza launched at least 40 rockets tonight alone in what appears to be a decision to escalate the conflict.
  36. ^ "Gaza-Israel conflict: Is the fighting over?". BBC. 26. august 2014. Hentet 28. august 2014.
  37. ^ "Gaza conflict: Israel and Palestinians agree long-term truce". BBC News. 27. august 2014.
  38. ^ Sobelman, Batsheva (5 August 2014).
  39. ^ Sherwood, Harriet; Balousha, Hazem (27. august 2014). "Gaza ceasefire: Israel and Palestinians agree to halt weeks of fighting". The Guardian UK. Hentet 29. august 2014.
  40. ^ "IMRA - Wednesday, July 30, 2014 IDF: Over the past 24 hours 36% of rockets fired at Israel fell short". www.imra.org.il. Hentet 2022-04-29.
  41. ^ "Up to 25 Percent of Hamas Rockets Fall Short and Kill Gazan Civilians". Hentet 22. marts 2016.
  42. ^ "Hamas Launches Rockets on Civilians in Gaza". Idfblog.com. 31. juli 2014. Arkiveret fra originalen 22. august 2014. Hentet 22. august 2014.
  43. ^ a b Ynetnews (2014-08-27). "Operation Protective Edge in numbers". Ynetnews (engelsk). Hentet 2022-04-29.
  44. ^ Ben-David, Ricky; Rettig Gur, Haviv; Yaakov, Yifa (26. august 2014). "Egypt says Gaza truce to begin at 7; Israeli killed in mortar strike". Times of Israel.
  45. ^ 'Palestinian armed groups killed civilians on both sides in attacks amounting to war crimes,' Amnesty International 26 March 2015
  46. ^ 'Unlawful and deadly Rocket and mortar attacks by Palestinian armed groups during the 2014 Gaza/Israel conflict,' Amnesty International, 26 March 2015.
  47. ^ "Rockets, airstrikes after Gaza war truce collapses". The Washington Times.
  48. ^ "AP ANALYSIS: Hamas enters talks with Israel on Gaza from a point of military weakness". Fox News. 6. august 2014.
  49. ^ a b "Statistics: Victims of the Israeli Offensive on Gaza since 8 July 2014". Pchrgaza.org. Arkiveret fra originalen 26. juni 2015. Hentet 27. august 2014.
  50. ^ Operation Protective Edge: A war waged on Gaza's children, Defence for Children International-Palestine, Ramallah, 16 April 2015.
  51. ^ "Examination of the names of Palestinians killed in Operation Protective Edge – Part Ten*" (PDF). Israeli Intelligence & Heritage Commemoration Center. 19. februar 2015. Hentet 19. februar 2015.
  52. ^ 'UN doubles estimate of destroyed Gaza homes,' Ynet 19 December 2015.
  53. ^ 'Housing group: 20 years to rebuild Gaza after fighting with Israel' Haaretz 30 August 2014.
  54. ^ Israeli child 'killed by rocket fired from Gaza', BBC
  55. ^ "Operation Protective Edge to cost NIS 8.5b". Arkiveret fra originalen 13. juli 2014. Hentet 11. juli 2014.

Medier brugt på denne side

Flag of Jihad.svg
The Shahada written in white on a black background. The first known flag was the previous one seen behind Bin Laden in Khost during 1996 or 1998
Flag of Hamas.svg
The en:Shahada in white calligraphy on a green background. Reported as the "Flag of Hamas" in flaggenlexikon.de . Uploaded 2007.

The Flags of the World website discussed the validity of this flag after it was displayed as an alleged "flag of Hamas" by Wikipedia in 2007.

According to a 2006 comment:

"The military branch of Hamas has a different flag, green with Shahada on it. Maybe that's why there is a confusion about the Hamas flag. One is white with Hamas emblem on it, and the military branch's flag is green with a shahada? At least, the green flag is there at all protests and demonstrations." (Valentin Poposki, 03 Mar 2006)

Use of this flag was reported as early as 2001:

"Hamas' flag is green (Muslim colour) with Arabic words in white. I saw this flag several times at Hamas demonstrations and at generic anti-Israel events in Palestine. Hamas emblem is here." (Santiago Tazón, 20 Dec 2001)

While this flag has apparently been spotted in Hamas demonstrations since at least 2001, it cannot be identified as "the flag of Hamas". It has rather been carried by Hamas supporters as symbolizing Islam or Islamism, not as an emblem of Hamas as an organization.

"It would be wrong to name the flag as the Hamas flag. Such flags, with the Sha'ada in white on green or black, are used by other Islamic groups and are not unique to Hamas. Therefore it is not the 'Hamas flag' but rather a flag used also by the Hamas." (Dov Gutterman, 29 Mar 2003)
The home of the Kware' family, after it was bombed by the military.jpg
(c) Muhammad Sabah and B'Tselem, CC BY 4.0
Description from B'Tselem source: "Gaza Strip, July 2014: A constant state of emergency

According to B’Tselem’s initial inquiries, by yesterday evening (14 July 2014) at least 172 Palestinians had been killed in Israel’s airstrikes on the Gaza Strip. This number includes 34 minors (eight younger than 6 years old), 20 women (under 60) and 10 senior citizens. Our field researchers in Gaza have been working ceaselessly, night and day, to document events. Our field researchers in the West Bank have been lending a hand by collecting testimonies over the phone. Our office staff has been processing and verifying information, and trying to convey the incomprehensible scope of the infringement on human rights.

The following seven photos were taken by our field workers in Gaza. They include images from the Kaware’ family home, where eight people, including six minors, were killed, and from the Hamad family home where six members of that family, including one girl – a minor – were killed."

Photo caption from source: "The home of the Kware' family, after it was bombed by the military, while family members and neighbors were present inside the house and in its vicinity."