Demokrati-indeks

The Economist Demokrati-indeks kort, hvor de lysere farver repræsenterer mere demokartiske lande. Lande med et DI under 2 (åbenlyst autoritære) er sorte.

The Economist har undersøgt hvordan det står til med demokrati i 167 lande, og forsøgt at sammenstille dette med et Demokrati-indeks, Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy, som fokuserer på fem generelle kategorier; frie og fair valg-processer, civile rettigheder, regeringens funktionalitet, politisk deltagelse og politisk kultur. Sverige scorede et total på 9,88 på en skala fra nul til ti, hvilket var det højeste, medens Nordkorea scorede det laveste med 1,03.[1][2] "Fungerende demokratier", "Fejlbehæftede demokratier", og "Hybridregimer" regnes for at være demokratier og "Autoritære regimer" regnes for at være diktatoriske.

Metodevalg

Som beskrevet i rapporten er demokrati-indekset en form for vejet gennemsnit baseret på svarene fra 60 spørgsmål, hvoraf hver tillod to eller tre alternative svar. De fleste svar er "eksperters vurderinger"; rapporten indikerer ikke hvilken form for eksperter, deres antal eller hvorvidt de er ansat hos The Economist eller for eksempel uafhængige videnskabsfolk, ligesom deres nationalitet ikke angives. Nogle svar er fremkommet ved meningsmålinger i de respektive lande. "I tilfælde af, at undersøgelsesresultater mangler i de enkelte lande, bruges undersøgelsesresultater fra sammenlignelige lande til at udfylde hullerne."

Spørgsmålene er inddelt i fem kategorier kaldet supra. Hvert svar er oversat til et tal, enten 0 eller 1, eller 0,5 for de tre alternative spørgsmål. Tilsyneladende med undtagelse af infra, adderes tallene indenfor hver kategori, multipliceres med ti, og divideres med det totale antal spørgsmål indenfor kategorien. Der er nogle få modificerende afhængigheder, som forklares meget mere omstændeligt end hovedreglerne. I nogle få tilfælde kan et svar som giver nul for eet spørgsmål, annulere et andet spørgsmål; for eksempel, hvis valget til den nationale lovgivende forsamling og leder af regeringen ikke anses for frit (spørgsmål 1), så overvejes næste spørgsmål: "Er valgene... fair?" ikke, men mærkes automatisk nul. På samme måde er der nogle få spørgsmål som betragtes som så vigtige, at et lavt score på dem, forårsager en straf i den totale score-sum indenfor deres respektive kategorier, nemlig[3]

  1. "Hvorvidt nationale valg er frie og fair";
  2. "Vælgernes sikkerhed";
  3. "Fremmede magters indflydelse på regeringen";
  4. "Kapaciteten hos embedsmændene til at implementere politikker".

Ud fra de fem kategori-indekser, som alle er listet i rapporten, udfindes nu et vejet gennemsnit for at finde demokrati-indekset for et givent land. Til sidst bestemmes klassificeringen af landet ud fra det afrundede demokrati-indeks (en decimal), som følger[4]

  1. Fungerende demokratier—score fra 8,01-10,0.
  2. Fejlbehæftede demokratier—score fra 6,01 til 8,00.
  3. Hybridregimer—score fra 4,01 til 6,00.
  4. Autoritære regimer— score under 4,01.

Rapporten diskuter andre demokrati-indeks, som defineret for eksempel af Freedom House, og argumenterer for nogle af de valg som The Economist har truffet. For eksempel er der i denne undersøgelse lagt større vægt på den offentlige mening, således som de fremgår af meningsmålinger, men på den anden side indgår økonomisk levestandard ikke som kriterie, således som det er tilfældet i andre undersøgelser. Der er ingen indikationer på at denne rapport er blevet fremlagt eller er planlagt at fremlægges i nogen akademisk sammenhæng, eller er blevet tjekket eller vil blive tjekket af peer review.

Demokrati-indeks 2021[5][6]

Se også

  • Gini-koefficient
  • Gender-related Development Index
  • Gender Empowerment Measure
  • Living Planet Index
  • Gross national happiness
  • Happy Planet Index
  • Physical quality-of-life index
  • Human development (humanity)
  • Human Development Index

Noter

  1. ^ "Laza Kekic. "A pause in democracy's march" (From The World in 2007 print edition)". Arkiveret fra originalen 10. december 2008. Hentet 9. november 2008.
  2. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 Arkiveret 7. september 2019 hos Wayback Machine (PDF file)
  3. ^ "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?" (PDF) (engelsk). s. 56. Hentet 2021-02-14.
  4. ^ "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?" (PDF) (engelsk). s. 57. Hentet 2021-02-14.
  5. ^ "Democracy Index 2021: the China challenge". EIU.com (engelsk). Hentet 2022-04-20.
  6. ^ "Democracy Index 2021 The China challenge" (PDF) (engelsk). s. 14-18. Hentet 2022-04-20.

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